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What is racial balancing or racial quotas? Why is it ruled unconstitutional in the United States?
According to this Wikipedia entry, "racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group."
Racial balancing is the acting toward racial quotas, in particular, the acting to balance racial distributions inside any entity such that they are consistent with the racial distributions in a larger demographic population.
Racial quotas or racial balance being unconstitutional and illegal is very simple in jurisprudence: every individual, regardless of ethnicity or race, must have equal rights in social life except for elections (election rights should be generally included too, in law). Based on race, forcibly manipulating quotas or balance will inevitably lead to the loss of interest of some individuals merely because of their race, and the unreasonable gain of others merely because of their race; Similarly, even if affirmative action takes race partially into account, it is essentially "correcting the consequences of the historical discriminatory policy by the present discriminatory policy." Hence, it is still illegitimate and can only be expediently utilized: Once the correction achieves a certain effect (not necessarily a complete effect), it must be stopped as soon as possible. Please refer to Regents of Univ. of California v. Bakke, 1978 for more details.
Racial quotas or racial balancing is largely a new concept in Ontario or Canada.
I've heard (or I am feeling) that racial awareness and considerations are trendy (in the United States).
That's a misconception, probably out of biased media. Facts in the US:
Race-based affirmative action is coming to an end in the United States. In California, one of the most “left” states in the US (and in the world), there was an unsuccessful attempt to re-introduce racial consideration in public education and employment in 2020: Although unanimously endorsed by the University of California Regents, the attempt was defeated 57% to 43% by the public.
Race-based policies are prohibited in K-12 education, as ruled in Parents v. Seattle School District, 2007. In the Thomas Jefferson High School case, the policy makers claim that the new plan for admissions is “merit-based and race-blind.”
Race-based policies in other social areas, even in benefits programs during the COVID-19 pandemic, are struck down by courts.